\textlessp\textgreaterMicroresonator-based soliton frequency combs, microcombs, have recently emerged to offer low-noise, photonic-chip sources for applications, spanning from timekeeping to optical-frequency synthesis and ranging. Broad optical bandwidth, brightness, coherence, and frequency stability have made frequency combs important to directly probe atoms and molecules, especially in trace gas detection, multiphoton light-atom interactions, and spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet. Here, we explore direct microcomb atomic spectroscopy, using a cascaded, two-photon 1529-nm atomic transition in a rubidium micromachined cell. Fine and simultaneous repetition rate and carrier-envelope offset frequency control of the soliton enables direct sub-Doppler and hyperfine spectroscopy. Moreover, the entire set of microcomb modes are stabilized to this atomic transition, yielding absolute optical-frequency fluctuations at the kilohertz level over a few seconds and \textless1-MHz day-to-day accuracy. Our work demonstrates direct atomic spectroscopy with Kerr microcombs and provides an atomic-stabilized microcomb laser source, operating across the telecom band for sensing, dimensional metrology, and communication.\textless/p\textgreater
Wei Zhang*, Liron Stern*, David Carlson, Douglas Bopp, Zachary Newman, Songbai Kang, John Kitching, and Scott B Papp. 2020. “Ultranarrow Linewidth Photonic-Atomic Laser.” *(Eq. Contrib.) Laser & Photonics Reviews, 14, 4, Pp. 1900293.
The efficient light–matter interaction and discrete level structure of atomic vapors made possible numerous seminal scientific achievements including time-keeping, extreme non-linear interactions, and strong coupling to electric and magnetic fields in quantum sensors. As such, atomic systems can be regarded as a highly resourceful quantum material platform. Recently, the field of thin optical elements with miniscule features has been extensively studied demonstrating an unprecedented ability to control photonic degrees of freedom. Hybridization of atoms with such thin optical devices may offer a material system enhancing the functionality of traditional vapor cells. Here, we demonstrate chip-scale, quantum diffractive optical elements which map atomic states to the spatial distribution of diffracted light. Two foundational diffractive elements, lamellar gratings and Fresnel lenses, are hybridized with atomic vapors demonstrating exceptionally strong frequency-dependent, non-linear and magneto-optic behaviors. Providing the design tools for chip-scale atomic diffractive optical elements develops a path for compact thin quantum-optical elements. Quantum coherence and the nonlinear properties of atoms are highly useful in optical devices. Here the authors show quantum-optic hybrid platforms in fully integrated chip-scale atomic diffractive optical elements by embedding hot atomic Rb vapor in microfabricated structures in silicon.
Following the efforts of size reduction and the integration of light and vapor systems, great promise is held in the integration of vapor and confined electromagnetic waves. By confining light to nanoscale dimensions, fundamental properties of light-vapor interactions may vary significantly. For example, the state of polarization may be modified as compared with weakly focused beams. Specifically, in transverse magnetic modes, the existence of a longitudinal field component, which is in quadrature to the transverse field, generates a "circular-like" polarized light. Here, by taking advantage of this very property, we study the interaction of confined light and vapor in a coupled system of plasmons and atomic vapors in the presence of magnetic fields. Our results show that the spectroscopic nature and Fano resonances of the hybrid plasmonic-atomic system are greatly altered. In parallel, we also exploit the existence of the atoms in proximity to the plasmonic mode to probe the polarization state of the electromagnetic field and reveal the longitudinal-to-transverse ratio between the plasmonic modes components in the near field. Interestingly, our system maps the amplitude and phase information of the electromagnetic modes to the spectral domain. As such, combining magnetic fields with the coupled plasmonic-atomic system has the potential for future applications in high spatial resolution magnetometry, near-field vectorial imaging, and magnetically induced switching and tuning.
We demonstrate an approach for on-chip beam positioning with a position accuracy of up to 100 nm. This approach is based on tracking the resonance of two adjacent microring resonators that are implemented on a silicon on insulator chip. We demonstrate the functionality of our approach by illuminating the chip through a Near Field Scanning Optical Microscope tip and monitoring the shift of the microring resonances due to the thermo-optic effect. We also discuss the contribution of different effects such as free carrier absorption and dispersion to the resonance shift.
In this work, we experimentally observe for the first time nanoscale plasmonic enhanced Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Velocity Selective Optical Pumping (VSOP) effects in miniaturized Integrated Quantum Plasmonic Device (IQPD) for D2 transitions in rubidium (Rb). Our device consists of a vapor cell integrated on top of a prism coated with a thin layer of metal. This configuration is known to allow efficient excitation of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). The evanescent field of the surface plasmon mode interacts with the atomic media in close vicinity to the metal. In spite of the limited interaction length between SPR and Rb atoms, the signature of EIT along with VSOP signals could be clearly observed in our miniaturized IQPD under proper conditions of pump and probe intensities. A gradual decrease in the contrast of the plasmonic enhanced EIT and VSOP signals was observed as the excitation was detuned from the SPR critical angle, due to reduction in electromagnetic field enhancement, leading to a reduced interaction of the evanescent field with the atomic vapor media. Following the demonstration of these effects, we also present a detailed model revealing the mechanisms and the origin of plasmonic enhanced EIT and VSOP effects in our system. The model, which is based on the Bloch equations, is in good agreement with the observed experimental results. The obtained results are regarded as an important step in the quest for the realization of nanoscale quantum plasmonic effects and devices.
In recent years, dielectric and metallic nanoscale metasurfaces are attracting growing attention and are being used for variety of applications. Resulting from the ability to introduce abrupt changes in optical properties at nanoscale dimensions, metasurfaces enable unprecedented control over light's different degrees of freedom, in an essentially two-dimensional configuration. Yet, the dynamic control over metasurface properties still remains one of the ultimate goals of this field. Here, we demonstrate the optical resonant interaction between a form birefringent dielectric metasurface made of silicon and alkali atomic vapor to control and effectively tune the optical transmission pattern initially generated by the nanoscale dielectric metasurface. By doing so, we present a controllable metasurface system, the output of which may be altered by applying magnetic fields, changing input polarization, or shifting the optical frequency. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the nonlinear behavior of our system tak...
In recent years, we are observing substantial efforts towards the miniaturization of atomic cells to a millimeter scale and below, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient and compact light vapor interactions. However, such miniaturization results in a reduction in optical path, effectively reducing the contrast of the optical signal. In order to overcome this obstacle, we have introduced and demonstrated a new approach of fluorescence double resonance optical pumping (FDROP) in the ladder-type atomic system. We have developed a theoretical model to predict the FDROP spectrum and validated this model using experimental results in a millimeter-size cell. We show that the contrast of fluorescence signal of the FDROP approach is higher than the transmission signal in the double resonance optical pumping approach. Taking advantage of this desired property, we have used the FDROP for the purpose of stabilizing the frequency of a laser operating at the telecom waveband with the hyperfine structure of the 5P3/2–4D5/2 transition in a millimeter-size cell. By beating the stabilized laser to another stabilized laser, we obtained frequency instability floor of 9×10−10 at around 1000 s in terms of Allan deviation. Such sources which are stabilized to miniaturized cells may play an important building block in diverse fields ranging e.g. from communication to metrology.
Space variant beams are of great importance for a variety of applications that have emerged in recent years. As such, manipulation of their degrees of freedom is highly desired. Here, we study the general interaction of space variant beams with a magnetically influenced Rb medium exploiting the atoms versatile properties in terms of frequency and intensity dependent circular dichroism and circular birefringence. We present the particular cases of radially polarized and hybrid polarized beams where the control of the polarization states is demonstrated experimentally. Moreover, we show that such an atomic system can be used as a tunable analyzer for space variant beams. Finally, exploiting the non-linear properties of Rb vapor, we show that we can control the circular birefringence all optically, and thus modulate the polarization of the radial polarized beam.
Stabilized laser lines are highly desired for myriad of applications ranging from precise measurements to optical communications. While stabilization can be obtained by using molecular or atomic absorption references, these are limited to specific frequencies. On the other hand, resonators can be used as wide band frequency references. Unfortunately, such resonators are unstable and inaccurate. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a chip-scale multispectral frequency standard replication operating in the spectral range of the near IR. This is obtained by frequency locking a microring resonator (MRR) to an acetylene absorption line. The MRR consists of a Si3N4 waveguides with microheater on top of it. The thermo-optic effect is utilized to lock one of the MRR resonances to an acetylene line. This locked MRR is then used to stabilize other laser sources at 980 nm and 1550 nm wavelength. By beating the stabilized laser to another stabilized laser, we obtained frequency instability floor of 4×10-9 at around 100 s in terms of Allan deviation. Such stable and accurate chip scale sources are expected to serve as important building block in diverse fields such as communication and metrology.
Hybrid nanostructures are attractive for future use in a variety of optoelectronic devices. Self-assembled hybrid organic/quantum dots can couple quantum properties to semiconductor devices and modify their functionality. These devices are simple to fabricate and control; however, they usually demonstrate low quantum efficiency. In this work we present experimental results of large extinction enhancement from a monolayer of colloidal quantum dots using a thin gold film evaporation forming random gold nanoparticles that act as plasmonic antennas. The random structures guarantee no sensitivity to polarization changes. The fabrication process of the plasmonic gold nanoparticles is simple and cheap and can be easily integrated with existing semiconductor devices. By matching the plasmonic resonance and the colloidal quantum dots bandgap we achieve up to 16% light extinction, which is 13-fold enhancement, compared to the reference. These results may pave the way toward realizing more efficient and sensitive photon detectors. Hybrid nanostructures are attractive for future use in a variety of optoelectronic devices. Self-assembled hybrid organic/quantum dots can couple quantum properties to semiconductor devices and modify their functionality. These devices are simple to fabricate and control; however, they usually demonstrate low quantum efficiency. In this work we present experimental results of large extinction enhancement from a monolayer of colloidal quantum dots using a thin gold film evaporation forming random gold nanoparticles that act as plasmonic antennas. The random structures guarantee no sensitivity to polarization changes. The fabrication process of the plasmonic gold nanoparticles is simple and cheap and can be easily integrated with existing semiconductor devices. By matching the plasmonic resonance and the colloidal quantum dots bandgap we achieve up to 16% light extinction, which is 13-fold enhancement, compared to the reference. These results may pave the way toward realizing more efficient and sensitive photon detectors.
We design, fabricate and experimentally demonstrate a novel generic method to detect flow rates and precise changes of flow velocity in microfluidic devices. Using our method we can measure flow rates of \~2 mm/s with a resolution of 0.08 mm/s. The operation principle is based on the Doppler shifting of light diffracted from a self-generated periodic array of bubbles within the channel and using self-heterodyne detection to analyze the diffracted light. As such, the device is appealing for variety of “lab on chip” bio-applications where a simple and accurate speed measurement is needed, e.g., for flow-cytometry and cell sorting.