Multi-dimensional photon-by-photon hidden Markov modeling

In 2016, Pirchi, Tsukanov et al. have introduced "photon-by-photon hidden Markov modeling" (H2MM). This method allows to perform hidden Markov modeling analyses of conformational dynamics in confocal-based single-molecule FRET (smFRET) experiments, photon-by-photon. This has allowed analyzing smFRET conformational dynamics even for dynamics occurring in as fast as a few microseconds!